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Visible are the Republic of Ireland top leftmost , the United Kingdom top left , France middle left , Belgium middle , the Netherlands top middle , Germany right , Denmark top right , Luxembourg between France, Germany, and Belgium , Switzerland bottom middle , Italy bottom middle , and Austria bottom right ; the latter three all cloud covered.
The city of Paris is the gray area in northern France. Image courtesy of NASA. Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
The snow-covered mountains, which form a formidable physical barrier between France to the north left and Spain to the south right , are the main focus of this low-oblique, southeast-looking photograph.
Scarcely interrupted by accessible passes and pierced in only two places by railroad tunnels, the Pyrenees are an ideal natural boundary between the Iberian Peninsula and the rest of Europe.
The northern flank of the Pyrenees is characterized by a series of large alluvial deposits that fan out across southwestern France.
The darker, roughly triangular area in southwest France is part of the forested Aquitaine Basin. The southern flank of the Pyrenees Spain is characterized by aridity and very rugged, mountainous conditions.
Human settlement is sparse throughout the Pyrenees. However, because the region is rich in mineral waters, there are dozens of mineral water resorts, and winter sports attract visitors from southwestern France.
The very small mountainous country of Andorra not distinguishable in this photograph has survived in an inaccessible upper valley of the Pyrenees.
The Alps march across this image of Autumnal early October southern Europe. On either side of and above the Alps are the countries of from left to right France, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, and Slovenia, while below the Alps is Italy.
As the season progresses, snow begins to whiten the Alps. The brightly lit metropolitan areas of Torino Italy , Lyon, and Marseille both in France stand out amidst numerous smaller urban areas in this dramatic photo from the international space station.
The image captures the nighttime appearance of the France-Italy border. The southwestern end of the Alps Mountains separates the two countries. The island of Corsica is visible in the Ligurian Sea to the south image top.
The full moon reflects brightly on the water surface and also illuminates the tops of low patchy clouds over the border center. Photo courtesy of NASA.
Rich in antiquities and picturesque landscapes, the island provinces of Corsica, France, top and Sardinia, Italy, bottom have captured the imaginations of historians and poets alike for centuries.
Corsica, crowned with snow-capped mountains, jeweled with shimmering lakes, and cloaked in misty emerald forests, is situated in the Mediterranean Sea southeast of mainland France.
The island has almost 1, hills and mountains, and is carved by an extensive network of rivers. Stretching across the central, eastern part of Sardinia is the rugged terrain of Gennargentu - mountainous, thickly vegetated, and mostly uninhabited.
View of Gordes in Provence. The buildings are constructed of white stones and rise in tiers above the Imergue Valley on the edge of the Vaucluse Plateau.
The Gordes Castle in Provence dates to The village square in Gordes is adjacent to the Castle. World War I memorial in the Gordes village square.
The Castle on the village square in Gordes, Provence, was partially rebuilt in Fields of lavender in Provence near Roussillon. A Roman bridge still in use in Provence near Roussillon.
View of the village of Roussillon in Provence. The village sits atop the highest hills between the Coulon Valley and the Vaucluse Plateau.
View of an alley in the village of Roussillon in Provence. Village church in Roussillon, Provence. Much of the architecture in Roussillon is colored with earthen tones from a nearby ocher quarry.
The two curved buildings making up the site house a number of museums. The Place de la Concorde in Paris is the largest square in the French capital.
In the center of the Place stands a giant obelisk, transported from Egypt and erected in Containing a hospital and retirement home for war veterans, the site also consists of museums and monuments relating to the military history of France.
Altar in the church of Saint-Ferdinand-des-Ternes in Paris. Flower festooned boat on the Seine River in Paris.
Objects dating from prehistory to the 19th century are on display there. The massive courtyard at the Chateau de Versailles Palace of Versailles. Most of the construction at the sprawling site was carried out in four phases between and , during the reign of Louis XIV.
Built by order of William the Conqueror, the former Benedictine abbey was completed in The tomb of William the Conqueror in the Church of St.
Gardens before the Church of St. Located on a bluff overlooking Omaha Beach one of the landing beaches for the Normandy Invasion of , the cemetery contains the remains of 9, American military dead.
View of the marina outside the walled city of Saint-Malo in Brittany. The city began as a 6th century monastic settlement.
Over time its citizens developed a reputation for asserting their autonomy. From , Saint-Malo declared itself an independent republic.
During the 16thth centuries, it was famous as the home of the corsairs French privateers. Jacques Cartier, the French explorer, called Saint-Malo home.
The first colonists of the Falkland Islands came from Saint-Malo. The Chateau de Saint-Malo in Britanny now serves as the town museum and town hall.
The fortified island abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel off the coast of Normandy. At one time the site was disconnected from the coast at high tide, but silting has since connected the island to the mainland.
Today, an operation is underway to desilt the area around the island. It was not until the 8th century that the first monastic establishment appeared on the island.
Before that it was a stronghold of Romano-Breton culture and power. During the Reformation, the popularity of the Mont declined, and during the French Revolution it became a prison which finally closed in Close up of some of the impressive fortifications at Mont-Saint-Michel.
The cloisters at Mont-Saint-Michel. Shops in the town of Cognac, where the famous brandy distilled wine was first developed.
The Chateau fort de Lourdes, which overlooks the town, occupies a strategic position in the Pyrenees. Parts of the structure date back to Roman times.
Pilgrims and visitors at Lourdes. The Rosary Basilica in the foreground serves as an entranceway to the larger Basilica of the Immaculate Conception behind.
Lourdes is the reputed site of 18 Marian apparitions in Some of the massive walls at the fortified town of Carcassone. A section of the fortifications at Chateau Comtal, part of the larger defenses at the fortress of Carcassone.
A street scene on a rainy day in the fortified town of Carcassone. The ancient Roman arena at Nimes is still in use today.
In subsequent centuries it served as a church, a meeting hall, a storehouse, and a stable. In it became a museum. The Roman aqueduct at Pont du Gard, built during the mid-first century A.
Built entirely without the use of mortar, its construction is thought to have taken about three years using to 1, workers. The city of Avignon in southeastern France is well known as the former seat of the papacy in the 14th century.
A beach at Nice. The city is a major tourist center and a leading resort along the French Riviera. Farmers market in Nice.
Flowers drip from balconies in the town of Saint-Paul de Vence in Provence. A street market in Beaune, a town located in the heart of the Burgundy wine region.
A street scene in Dijon, the capital of the Burgundy region. The city was first settled by the Romans and then became the domain of the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the area until the late s.
It is known for its many architectural styles and hosts the annual Dijon International and Gastronomic Fair. A cafe on a canal in Colmar.
The town, situated on the Alsatian Wine Route, was founded in the 9th century. It reverted to France in Buildings along a canal in Colmar, an Alsatian town known as "Little Venice.
Half timbered houses along a shopping street in old Colmar. A street scene in old Colmar. The picturesque town is a tourist magnet; it annually hosts the Alsatian Wine Fair.
Street scene in the Alsatian town of Colmar. Colorful houses along a canal in Colmar, an Alsatian town with the sobriquet of "Little Venice.
Matthew in the Alsatian town of Colmar was built in the 13th century. Colorful house in the medieval Alsatian town of Riquewihr.
The locale is renowned not only for its historic architecture, but also for the fine wines it produces. The road into Ingersheim on the Alsatian Wine Route.
Vineyards along the Alsatian Wine Route. This church, built in , replaced one dating to medieval times. Street scene in Eguisheim along the Alsace Wine Trail.
Old wine press along the streets of Eguisheim. Strolling through the streets of Eguisheim. Street scene along the flower-lined streets of Eguisheim.
Strasbourg Cathedral was begun in and completed in Although it displays some elements of Romanesque style, it is widely considered to be among the finest examples of high Gothic architecture.
Inside is an unusually accurate clock that has been built and rebuilt three times over the centuries, and which indicates a variety of astronomical data.
The animated figures still move to indicate the hours of the day. The famous west portal of the Strasbourg Cathedral is in the Gothic style and has hundreds of figures sculpted into it.
Rose windows, such as this one in Strasbourg Cathedral, are a common feature of Gothic architecture. Grande Ile is in the Ill River, which runs through Strasbourg.
The entire island has been named a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its buildings showing developing stages of architecture - beginning in the medieval period and working up to the classical period.
Besides Strasbourg Cathedral there are four other venerable churches, as well as the Palais Rohan, a former residence of the prince-bishops of the area.
Constructed in , the structure housed the port and tax authorities, and was used to store and transform goods and merchandise going up and down the Rhine River.
Today the building houses a restaurant. A sightseeing boat along the Ill River in Strasbourg. Walkway along the Ill River in Strasbourg.
A view of the western side of Strasbourg Cathedral. Only one spire was ever completed. View of the Strasbourg Cathedral roof from its spire. Some of the flying buttresses supporting the cathedral walls can be clearly seen.
Looking down on Strasbourg from the Cathedral. Strasbourg is the capital of the Alsace region and the Bas-Rhin department. It is an important center of manufacturing and engineering, and has a port on the Rhine River.
The Celts first settled the site in about B. It became a part of the Roman Empire in 12 B. The University of Strasbourg is the largest university in France.
The square, constructed between and , was the brainchild of Stanislas Leszczynski, Duke of Lorraine and former King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Nancy became a French province on the death of Stanislas in In , the heads of three countries - Germany, Poland, and France - met here to inaugurate the renovated Place Stanislas.
A statue of Stanislas Leszczynski stands in front of the Town Hall. The Neptune Fountain is one of four waterworks erected by Barthelemy Guibal in Stanislas Square in Nancy; this one was completed in It was erected in the 14th century, and its towers were used as prisons for many years.
Its bell also formerly tolled the curfew. The facade displays a distinctive Lorraine Cross, since the city was the former capital of the Duchy of Lorraine.
By tradition, this is the castle Charles Perrault had in mind when he wrote the Sleeping Beauty fairy tale. The mansion of Clos Luce in Amboise is connected to the nearby royal Chateau by an underground passageway.
It served as the residence of Leonardo da Vinci for the last three years of his life The mansion currently is the museum for the surrounding region and displays 40 models of machines developed by Leonardo.
The Chateau de Chenonceau in the Loire Valley was built in the early 16th century. Statue of Dom Perignon in the town of Epernay.
The Benedictine monk made many important contributions to the production and quality of champagne wines. This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar. This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNS , maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.
This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative.
The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. Central America and the Caribbean; Martinique: Central America and the Caribbean; Mayotte: This entry includes three subfields.
This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census.
This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.
When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.
French Guiana - total: This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea.
This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.
This entry contains a brief description of the topography. Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin; Martinique: This entry includes both the mean elevation and the elevation extremes.
In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future. Large-scale immigration over the last century and a half has led to a more multicultural society.
A law originating from the revolution and reaffirmed in the French Constitution makes it illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry.
There are also sizeable minorities of other European ethnic groups , namely Spanish , Portuguese , Polish , and Greek.
France has a significant Gypsy Gitan population, numbering between 20, and , France remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about , legal immigrants annually.
According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France.
France is a highly urbanized country, with its largest cities in terms of metropolitan area population in  being Paris 12,, inh.
There are significant differences between the metropolitan population figures just cited and those in the following table, which only include the core population.
Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century. According to Article 2 of the Constitution, the official language of France is French,  a Romance language derived from Latin.
The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications.
In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie.
The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories.
From the 17th to the midth century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe.
For most of the time in which French served as an international lingua franca, it was not the native language of most Frenchmen: French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English,  and is a lingua franca in some regions, notably in Africa.
The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: On the other hand, many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language, and the total number of French speakers is increasing, especially in Africa.
It is estimated that between million  and million  people worldwide can speak French, either as a mother tongue or a second language. According to the Adult Education survey, part of a project by the European Union and carried in France by the Insee and based on a sample of 15, persons, French was the first mother tongue of People who had other languages as their mother tongue made up the 5.
Religion in France . France is a secular country, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised today as it was.
In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornament. It recognises religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine.
Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making. Secte is considered a pejorative term in France.
The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.
In its assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world.
Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World. Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest people in developed countries,       France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity , due mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food.
Rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France, while continuing to grow in other countries. Nowadays, the schooling system in France is centralised, and is composed of three stages, primary education, secondary education, and higher education.
In France, education is compulsory from six to sixteen years old, and the public school is secular and free. While training and remuneration of teachers and the curriculum are the responsibility of the state centrally, the management of primary and secondary schools is overseen by local authorities.
Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young children and promote their socialisation and development of a basic grasp of language and number.
Around the age of six, children transfer to elementary school, whose primary objectives are learning about writing, arithmetic and citizenship.
Secondary education also consists of two phases. France has been a centre of Western cultural development for centuries. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognised in the world for its rich cultural tradition.
The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public.
The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.
The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country.
France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.
The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences many castles and religious buildings cathedrals , basilicas , churches , but also statutes, memorials and gardens.
The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance.
Jean Fouquet , the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.
The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino , who both worked in France.
The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism. Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works.
During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers. During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe.
Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse , the largest romanesque church in Europe,  and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.
The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style.
However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one. Jules Hardouin Mansart , who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.
On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.
After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.
Under Napoleon III , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.
The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire.
In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.
More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building.
The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet.
The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language. There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar.
Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.
Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.
Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people.
French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors.
Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times"  for excelling in all literary genres. The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement.
The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.
Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.
In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.
Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.
France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.
After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.
Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord. French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.
Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.
This period was also a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Later came precursors of modern classical music.
Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music.
Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.
The two composers invented new musical forms     and new sounds. More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.
French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.
Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government.
France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country. Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.
For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc Besson , Jacques Tourneur , or Francis Veber in the United States.
Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world,  although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.
Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception.
S and Israel, voted against it. Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.
The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style French: But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.
The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH.
Like in most industrialised nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade. In , the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent,   but in it had to give , euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis , in addition to existing subsidies.
In , after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations   remained under state-control.
It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio. In , the government created global news channel France According to a poll in , the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.
In addition, Bastille Day , the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.
Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.
French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. There are more than different varieties. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites.
French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France. By , the Michelin Guide had awarded stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country by , Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.
In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. Since , France hosts the annual Tour de France , the most famous road bicycle race in the world.
French martial arts include Savate and Fencing. Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs.
The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments.
Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. Stemming from a strong domestic league , the French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times.
Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse.
The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in France. In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker.
The national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories.
Great Seal of France. Show map of Europe. Source gives area of metropolitan France as , km2 , sq mi and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89, km 2 34, sq mi.
Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as , km2 , sq mi.
Gaul , Celts , and Roman Gaul. Francia , Merovingian dynasty , and Carolingian dynasty. List of French monarchs and France in the Middle Ages.
Kingdom of France , Capetian dynasty , Valois dynasty , and Bourbon dynasty. France in the 19th century and France in the 20th century.
France in the twentieth century. Administrative divisions of France. Centre- Val de Loire. Pays de la Loire. Foreign relations of France.
Bastille Day in Paris. List of French inventions and discoveries. Demographics of France and French people. Largest cities or towns in France census.
Urban area France and Urban unit. French language , Languages of France , and Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. France portal French language and French-speaking world portal.
The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: All five are considered integral parts of the French Republic.
Archived from the original on 5 April Archived from the original PDF on 15 September Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" PDF.
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A History of Private Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons: Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 23 January A history of ancient Greece.
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Ann Arbor, pp. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Archived from the original on 31 October University of California Press.
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Archived from the original on 16 April Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 16 October Palais des Papes Avignon. Port of the Moon Bordeaux.
Neuf-Brisach Fortification de Vauban. Beaches of France and Coasts of France. Forest of la Coubre. Universities and colleges in France.
Town halls in France. Porte des Allemands Metz. Ruines romaines de Glanum. Ponts Couverts, Strasbourg Strasbourg. Religious buildings in France.
Notre Dame de Paris. Monasteries in France and Abbeys in France. Grand Mosque of Paris. Ancient Roman architecture in France.
Romanesque art in France. Gothic art in France. Renaissance art in France. Baroque art in France. Art Nouveau in France. Modern movement architecture in France.
Venus of Brassempouy July Column place de la Bastille , Paris. Voltaire Naked Louvre Museum, Paris. Equestrian statue of Vercingetorix place de Jaude , Clermont-Ferrand.
Maurice Quentin de La Tour. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon. Biscuit rose de Reims. The feast of the main stream.
Festival Interceltique de Lorient. Henry IV of France.