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Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, which is a testimony to Roman military judgement.
Different structures were built there at different times. The current citadel originated in , but it replaced previous forts.
It was used in World War II. One of the sights at the citadel is still the cenotaph raised by legionaries to commemorate their Drusus. Through a series of incursions during the 4th century Alsace gradually lost its Belgic ethnic character of formerly Germanic tribes among Celts ruled by Romans and became predominantly influenced by the Alamanni.
The Romans repeatedly reasserted control; however, the troops stationed at Mainz became chiefly non-Italic and the emperors had only one or two Italian ancestors in a pedigree that included chiefly peoples of the northern frontier.
By that time the army included large numbers of troops from the major Germanic confederacies along the Rhine, the Alamanni, the Saxons and the Franks.
The Franks were an opponent that had risen to power and reputation among the Belgae of the lower Rhine during the 3rd century and repeatedly attempted to extend their influence upstream.
In the emperor Julian bought peace by giving them most of Germania Inferior , which they possessed anyway, and imposing service in the Roman army in exchange.
He used Hunnic troops a number of times. Attila went through Alsace in , devastating the country and destroying Mainz and Triers with their Roman garrisons.
As far as the north was concerned this was the effective end of the Roman empire there. His father was a Suebian; his mother, a princess of the Visigoths.
Patrician did not rule the north directly but set up a client province there, which functioned independently. The capital was at Soissons.
Even then its status was equivocal. Many insisted it was the Kingdom of Soissons. His son, Merovaeus , fought on the Roman side against Attila, and his son, Childeric , served in the domain of Soissons.
Meanwhile, the Franks were gradually infiltrating and assuming power in this domain. They also moved up the Rhine and created a domain in the region of the former Germania Superior with capital at Cologne.
They became known as the Ripuarian Franks as opposed to the Salian Franks. It is unlikely that much of a population transfer or displacement occurred.
The former Belgae simply became Franks. Events moved rapidly in the late 5th century. Clovis, son of Childeric, became king of the Salians in , ruling from Tournai.
In he defeated Syagrius , last governor of the Soissons domain, and took northern France. He extended his reign to Cambrai and Tongeren in —, and repelled the Alamanni in Also in that year he converted to non-Arian Christianity.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in , the Franks under the rule of Clovis I gained control over western Europe by the year Clovis annexed the kingdom of Cologne in Thereafter, Mainz, in its strategic position, became one of the bases of the Frankish kingdom.
Mainz had sheltered a Christian community long before the conversion of Clovis. His successor Dagobert I reinforced the walls of Mainz and made it one of his seats.
A solidus of Theodebert I — was minted at Mainz. Charlemagne — , through a succession of wars against other tribes, built a vast Frankian empire in Europe.
Mainz from its central location became important to the empire and to Christianity. Meanwhile, language change was gradually working to divide the Franks.
Mainz spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian. On the death of Charlemagne, distinctions between France and Germany began to be made. Mainz was not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question of the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into modern times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine.
The first archbishop in Mainz, Boniface , was killed in while trying to convert the Frisians to Christianity and is buried in Fulda. Harald Klak , king of Jutland, his family and followers, were baptized at Mainz in , in the abbey of St.
From the time of Willigis until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in , the Archbishops of Mainz were archchancellors of the Empire and the most important of the seven Electors of the German emperor.
Besides Rome, the diocese of Mainz today is the only diocese in the world with an episcopal see that is called a Holy See sancta sedes.
The Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were primas germaniae , the substitutes of the Pope north of the Alps. In , Archbishop Siegfried III granted Mainz a city charter, which included the right of the citizens to establish and elect a city council.
The city saw a feud between two archbishops in , namely Diether von Isenburg , who was elected Archbishop by the cathedral chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau , who had been named archbishop for Mainz by the pope.
In , the Archbishop Adolf raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow Adolf.
Those who would not promise to follow Adolf amongst them Johannes Gutenberg were driven out of the town or thrown into prison.
The new archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz and put the city under his direct rule. Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the chapter and named by the Pope.
The Jewish community of Mainz dates to the 10th century AD. It is noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah — taught there, among others.
He concentrated on the study of the Talmud , creating a German Jewish tradition. Mainz is also the legendary home of the martyred Rabbi Amnon of Mainz , composer of the Unetanneh Tokef prayer.
The Jews of Mainz, Speyer and Worms created a supreme council to set standards in Jewish law and education in the 12th century. The city of Mainz responded to the Jewish population in a variety of ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them.
Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other times, they were persecuted. The Jews were expelled in , after which they were invited to return , and in Jews were attacked in and by mobs in Outbreaks of the Black Death were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred, such as the burning of about 6, Jews alive in Nowadays the Jewish community is growing rapidly, and a new synagogue by the architect Manuel Herz was constructed in on the site of the one destroyed by the Nazis on Kristallnacht in Prussia was not entirely happy with the idea of a democratic free state on German soil although the French dominated Mainz was neither free nor democratic.
Prussian troops had already occupied the area and besieged Mainz by the end of March, After a siege of 18 weeks, the French troops in Mainz surrendered on 23 July ; Prussians occupied the city and ended the Republic of Mainz.
It came to the Battle of Mainz in between Austria and France. Members of the Mainz Jacobin Club were mistreated or imprisoned and punished for treason.
In , the French returned. Austria and Prussia could not but approve this new border with France in Rheinhessen was awarded to the Hesse-Darmstadt , Mainz being the capital of the new Hessian province of Rhenish Hesse.
From to , to the German Confederation Mainz was the most important fortress in the defence against France, and had a strong garrison of Austrian, Prussian and Bavarian troops.
Approximately people were killed and at least injured; 57 buildings were destroyed and a similar number severely damaged in what was to be known as the Powder Tower Explosion or Powder Explosion.
During the Austro-Prussian War in , Mainz was declared a neutral zone. For centuries the inhabitants of the fortress of Mainz had suffered from a severe shortage of space which led to disease and other inconveniences.
In Mayor Carl Wallau and the council of Mainz persuaded the military government to sign a contract to expand the city.
Beginning in , the city of Mainz assimilated the Gartenfeld , an idyllic area of meadows and fields along the banks of the Rhine to the north of the rampart.
The city expansion more than doubled the urban area which allowed Mainz to participate in the industrial revolution which had previously avoided the city for decades.
He also planned the first sewer system for the old part of town since Roman times and persuaded the city government to relocate the railway line from the Rhine side to the west end of the town.
The Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art public buildings, including the Mainz town hall — which was the largest of its kind in Germany at that time — as well a synagogue, the Rhine harbour and a number of public baths and school buildings.
In the demolition of the entire circumvallation and the Rheingauwall was taken in hand, according to imperial order of Wilhelm II.
The French occupation was confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles which went into effect 28 June The Rhineland in which Mainz is located was to be a demilitarized zone until and the French garrison, representing the Triple Entente , was to stay until reparations were paid.
In Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement that proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland. It collapsed in The French withdrew on 30 June Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January, and his political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered.
Some were able to move away from Mainz in time. One was the political organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner , who went to Laubach, where as the chief justice inspector of the district court he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a page diary.
They hoisted the swastika on all public buildings and began to denounce the Jewish population in the newspapers. The former Triple Entente took no action.
Mainz was captured on 22 March against uneven German resistance staunch in some sectors and weak in other parts of the city by the 90th Infantry Division under William A.
From to , the city was part of the French zone of occupation. His life in Mainz, and the impact of his writings , is the subject of the Canadian documentary My Opposition: The Diaries of Friedrich Kellner.
The following list shows the largest minority groups in Mainz as of [update]:. The destruction caused by the bombing of Mainz during World War II led to the largest building boom in the history of the town.
The air raid caused most of the dead and made an already hard-hit city largely leveled. Nevertheless, the post-war reconstruction took place very slowly.
While cities such as Frankfurt had been rebuilt fast by a central authority, only individual efforts were initially successful in rebuilding Mainz.
The reason for this was that the French wanted Mainz to expand and to become a model city. Mainz lay within the French-controlled sector of Germany and it was a French architect and town-planner, Marcel Lods , who produced a Le Corbusier-style plan of an ideal architecture.
Even after the failure of the model city plans it was the initiative of the French founding of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz , elevation of Mainz to the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, the early resumption of the Mainz carnival driving the city in a positive development after the war.
The City Plan of by Ernst May allowed a regulated reconstruction for the first time. At the time of the two-thousand-years-anniversary in the city was largely reconstructed.
By there remained only a few ruins. The town used Jacobsens activity for the Danish Novo erecting a new office and warehouse building to contact him.
The urban renewal of the old town changed the inner city. During the s the Kisselberg between Gonsenheim and Bretzenheim, the "Fort Malakoff Center" at the site of the old police barracks, the renewal of the Main Station and the demolition of the first post-war shopping center at the Markt followed by the erection of a new historicising building at the same place.
The city of Mainz is divided into 15 local districts according to the main statute of the city of Mainz. Each local district has a district administration of 13 members and a directly elected mayor, who is the chairman of the district administration.
In accordance with section 29 paragraph 2 Local Government Act of Rhineland-Palatinate , which refers to municipalities of more than , inhabitants, the city council has 60 members.
Until , the districts of Bischofsheim now an independent town , Ginsheim-Gustavsburg which together are an independent town belonged to Mainz.
The coat of arms of Mainz is derived from the coat of arms of the Archbishops of Mainz and features two six-spoked silver wheels connected by a silver cross on a red background.
Mainz is home to a Carnival , the Mainzer Fassenacht or Fastnacht , which has developed since the early 19th century. Carnival in Mainz has its roots in the criticism of social and political injustices under the shelter of cap and bells.
Today, the uniforms of many traditional Carnival clubs still imitate and caricature the uniforms of the French and Prussian troops of the past. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article.
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