Traditionally, the memorial pole has one carved figure at the top, but an additional figure may also be added at the bottom of the pole.
Memorial poles may also commemorate an event. For example, several memorial totem poles were erected by the Tlingits in honor of Abraham Lincoln, one of which was relocated to Saxman , Alaska, in S, revenue cutter Lincoln to patrol the area.
After American soldiers at the fort and aboard the Lincoln provided protection to the Tongass group against its rival, the Kagwantans, the Tongass group commissioned the Lincoln pole to commemorate the event.
Poles used for public ridicule are usually called shame poles, and were created to embarrass individuals or groups for their unpaid debts or when they did something wrong.
Shame pole carvings represent the person being shamed. It was created to shame former U. Secretary of State William H. Seward for not reciprocating the courtesy or generosity of his Tlingit hosts following a potlatch given in his honor.
This pole was erected by Chief Shakes to shame the Kiks. It is not known if the debt was ever repaid. In , the U. Forest Service commissioned a pole to commemorate Alexander Baranof , the Russian governor and Russian American Company manager, as a civilian works project.
George Benson, a Sitka carver and craftsman, created the original design. The completed version originally stood in Totem Square in downtown Sitka, Alaska.
The Sitka Sentinel reported that while standing, it was "said to be the most photographed totem [pole] in Alaska". Some poles from the Pacific Northwest have been moved to other locations for display out of their original context.
The other two poles were sold; one pole from the Alaska pavilion went the Milwaukee Public Museum and the pole from the Esquimau Village was sold and then given to industrialist David M.
Parry , who installed it on his estate in what became known as the Golden Hill neighborhood of Indianapolis , Indiana.
The Indian New Deal of the s strongly promoted native arts and crafts, and in the totem pole they discovered an art that was widely appreciated by white society.
In Alaska the Indian Division of the Civilian Conservation Corps restored old totem poles, copied those beyond repair, and carved new ones.
The Indian Arts and Crafts Board, A federal government agency, facilitated their sale to the general public. The project was lucrative, but anthropologists complaining that it stripped the natives of their traditional culture and stripped away the meaning of the totem poles.
Another example occurred in , when the U. Forest Service began a totem pole restoration program in Alaska.
In Seattle, Washington, a Tlingit funerary totem pole was raised in Pioneer Square in , after being taken from an Alaskan village. After the tree to be used for the totem pole is selected, it is cut down and moved to the carving site, where the bark and outer layer of wood sapwood is removed.
Next, the side of the tree to be carved is chosen and the back half of the tree is removed. The center of the log is hollowed out to make it lighter and to keep it from cracking.
Carvers use chain saws to make the rough shapes and cuts, while adzes and chisels are used to chop the wood.
Carvers use knives and other woodworking tools to add the finer details. When the carving is complete, paint is added to enhance specific details of the figures.
Raising a totem pole is rarely done using modern methods, even for poles installed in modern settings. Most artists use a traditional method followed by a pole-raising ceremony.
The traditional method calls for a deep trench to be dug. One end of the pole is placed at the bottom of the trench; the other end is supported at an upward angle by a wooden scaffold.
Hundreds of strong men haul the pole upright into its footing, while others steady the pole from side ropes and brace it with cross beams. Once the pole is upright, the trench is filled with rocks and dirt.
A community potlatch celebration typically follows the pole raising to commemorate the event. Totem poles are typically not well maintained after their installation and the potlatch celebration.
The poles usually last from 60 to 80 years; only a few have stood longer than 75 years, and even fewer have reached years of age. Older poles typically fall over during the winter storms that batter the coast.
The owners of a collapsed pole may commission a new one to replace it, . Each culture typically has complex rules and customs regarding the traditional designs represented on poles.
The designs are generally considered the property of a particular clan or family group of traditional carvers, and this ownership of the designs may not be transferred to the person who has commissioned the carvings.
There have been protests when those who have not been trained in the traditional carving methods, cultural meanings and protocol, have made "fake totem poles" for what could be considered crass public display and commercial purposes.
These include imitations made for commercial and even comedic use in venues that serve alcohol, and in other settings that are insensitive or outright offensive to the sacred nature of some of the carvings.
Tlingit totem pole in Ketchikan, Alaska , circa Totem poles in front of homes in Alert Bay, British Columbia in the s. Competitions to make the tallest pole remain prevalent, although it is becoming more difficult to procure trees of sufficient height.
The thickest totem pole ever carved to date is in Duncan, British Columbia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Totem pole disambiguation. Heraldic Columns of the Northwest Coast". Retrieved 21 January Home Before the Raven Caws: The Mystery of a Totem Pole Rev.
Garfield and Linn A. The Wolf and the Raven: Totem Poles of Southeastern Alaska. University of Washington Press. According to Crests and Topics".
National Museum of Canada Bulletin. Retrieved 24 November According to Crests and Topics", p. Totem Poles of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
During the social and economic tensions of the Great Depression , some had begun to feel aggrieved with their minority status.
They participated in espionage, sabotage and other Fifth column means in their countries of origin, trained and commanded by Abwehr. Among the indigenous populations in the Nazi-occupied lands, Volksdeutsche became a term of ignominy.
During the early years of the Second World War i. Some of these enlisted and fought in the German army. Ethnic Germans throughout Europe benefited financially during World War II from the Nazi policies of genocide and ethnic cleansing , and profited from the expulsion and murder of their non-German neighbors.
It organised the mass murder of Polish elites in Operation Tannenberg. At the beginning of , the Selbstschutz organization was disbanded, and its members transferred to various units of the SS, Gestapo and the German police.
Throughout the invasion of Poland , some ethnic German minority groups assisted Nazi Germany in the war effort. They committed sabotage, diverted regular forces and committed numerous atrocities against civilian population.
The German occupants encouraged such registration, in many cases forcing it or subjecting Poles of German ethnicity to terror assaults if they refused.
The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle organised large-scale looting of property and redistributed goods to the Volksdeutsche.
They were given apartments, workshops, farms, furniture, and clothing confiscated from Jewish Poles and Poles of Polish ethnicity.
In turn, hundreds of thousands of the Volksdeutsche joined the German forces, either willingly or under compulsion. Many families had lived in Poland for centuries; and more-recent immigrants had arrived over 30 years before the war.
They faced the choice of registering and being regarded as traitors by other Poles, or not signing and being treated by the Nazi occupation as traitors to the Germanic "race".
In occupied Poland, Volksdeutscher enjoyed privileges and were subject to conscription into the German army. In occupied Pomerania , the Gauleiter of the Danzig-West Prussia region Albert Forster ordered a list of people considered of German ethnicity to be made in Due to insignificant voluntary registrations by February , Forster made signing the Volksliste mandatory and empowered local authorities to use force and threats to implement the decree.
The special case of Polish Pomerania , where terror against civilians was particularly intense, and where, unlike in rest of occupied Poland, signing of the list was mandatory for many people, was recognised by the Polish Underground State and other anti-Nazi resistance movements, which tried to explain the situation to other Poles in underground publications.
The Deutsche Volksliste categorised non-Jewish Poles of German ethnicity into one of four categories: Volksdeutsche of statuses 1 and 2 in the Polish areas annexed by Germany numbered 1,,, and Nos.
In the General Government there were , Volksdeutsche. Volksdeutsche of Polish ethnic origins were treated by the Poles with special contempt, but were also committing high treason according to Polish law.
Because of actions by some Volksdeutsche and particularly the atrocities committed by Nazi Germany , after the end of the war, the Polish authorities tried many Volksdeutsche for high treason.
In the postwar period, many other ethnic Germans were expelled to the west and forced to leave everything. In post-war Poland, the word Volksdeutsche is regarded as an insult, synonymous with "traitor".
In some cases, individuals consulted the Polish resistance first, before signing the Volksliste. There were Volksdeutsche who played important roles in intelligence activities of the Polish resistance, and were at times the primary source of information for the Allies.
It prosecuted many double-agent Volksdeutsche and sentenced some to death. The secret protocols of Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact created domestic problems for Hitler.
In August , Soviet Foreign minister Molotov told the Germans that, with the government change, they could close down their Baltic consulates by 1 September.
In October , Germany and the Soviet Union negotiated about the Volksdeutsche in Soviet-occupied territories and their property.
After the Russian Revolution of , the government granted the Volga Germans an autonomous republic. Most of Soviet Germans in the USSR were deported to Siberia , Kazakhstan , and Central Asia by Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of August 28, , and from the beginning of those Soviet Germans who were deemed suitable for hard work men aged from 15 to 55 and women from 16 to 45 were mobilised for forced labour into Working columns where they lived in a prison-like environment, and sometimes, together with regular inmates, were put in prison camps.
Hundreds of thousands died or became incapacitated due to the harsh conditions. A significant portion of Volksdeutsche in Hungary joined the SS , which was a pattern repeated also in Romania with 54, locals serving in the SS by the end of As early as , some 18, Hungarian Germans joined the SS.
After World War II, approximately , Volksdeutsche fled or were expelled from the region in —48 by the Soviet-installed communist government of Hungary.
Today they have virtually all become assimilated or left the region. After Romania acquired parts of Soviet Ukraine, the Germans there came under the authority of the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle , which deployed SS personnel to several settlements.
They eventually contained German mayors, farms, schools and ethnic German paramilitary groups functioning as police called Selbstschutz "Self-protection".
German colonists and Selbstschutz forces engaged in extensive acts of ethnic cleansing , massacring Jewish and Roma populations.
In the German colony of Shonfeld, Romas were burned in farms. In the camp of Bogdanovka , tens of thousands of Jews were subject to mass shootings, barn burnings and killing by hand grenades.
Heinrich Himmler was sufficiently impressed by the Volksdeutsche communities and the work of the Selbstschutz to order that these methods be copied in Ukraine.
It was conspicuous in its operations against the Yugoslav Partisans and civilian population. About , ethnic Germans from the Nazi-conquered former Yugoslavia joined the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS, the majority conscripted involuntarily as judged by the Nuremberg Trials.
Yet "[a]fter the initial rush of Volksdeutsche to join, voluntary enlistments tapered off, and the new unit did not reach division size.
Therefore, in August , the SS discarded the voluntary approach, and after a favourable judgement from the SS court in Belgrade, imposed a mandatory military obligation on all Volksdeutsche in Serbia-Banat, the first of its kind for non-Reich Germans.
Most ethnic Germans fled or were expelled from European countries Czechia, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary under the Potsdam Agreement from to towards the end and after the war.
Both those who became ethnic Germans by registering in the Deutsche Volksliste and Reichsdeutsche retained German citizenship during the years of Allied military occupation, after the establishment of East Germany and West Germany in , and later in the reunified Germany.
France, which was not represented in Potsdam, rejected the decision of the Three of Potsdam and did not absorb expellees in its zone of occupation.
The three Allies had to accept the reality on the ground, since expulsions of Volksdeutsche and Central and Eastern European nationals of German or alleged German ethnicity who never had enrolled as Volksdeutsche, was going on already.
Local authorities forced most of the remaining ethnic Germans to leave between and Remnants of the ethnic German community survive in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia.
There are also remnant German populations near Mukachevo in western Ukraine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the origins and historical use of the term Volksdeutsche.
For the article about some of the people this term describes, see ethnic Germans. Volksdeutsche from Sudetendeutsches Freikorps in Czechoslovakia Arthur Greiser welcoming the millionth resettler of German ethnicity during the " Heim ins Reich " action from Central and Eastern Europe to occupied Poland - March Volksdeutsche resettling after the Soviet occupation of Central and Eastern Poland.
Volkdeutsche resettling after the Soviet occupation of Bukovina and Bessarabia in . Resettled Baltic Germans take possession of their new homes in Warthegau after the forced abandonment by the legitimate Polish owners.
Baltic German settlers are shown around their new possession in occupied Poland in November Flight and expulsion of Germans — S-Z , , p.
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